Human retrieved implants with an intact bone-implant interface play a pivotal role in validating data obtained from in vitro studies and animal experiments. This study presents a histologic and histomorphometric analysis of peri-implant tissue reactions and of the bone-titanium interface in three machined and sandblasted dental implants retrieved after a 5-year loading period.
METHOD AND MATERIALS:
Three implants, with an intact bone-implant interface, were found in the Archives of the Implant Retrieval Center of the Dental School of the University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy. The three implants had been used in a two-stage submerged procedure and loaded as part of a small prosthetic restoration. One implant had been retrieved because of an abutment fracture, while there was a fracture of the connecting screw in the other two. One implant was in the maxilla (sandblasted surface), and two were in the mandible (one with a machined surface and the other with a sandblasted surface). All implants had been processed for histology.
All three implants presented mature, compact, lamellar bone at the interface. Many remodeling areas were present in the peri-implant bone, especially inside the implant threads. The bone was always in close contact with the implant surface. The bone-implant contact percentage of the machined implant was 92.7%, while the two sandblasted implants showed bone-implant contact percentages of 85.9% and 76.6%.
The present histologic results confirmed that these implants with different surfaces maintained a good level of osseointegration over a 5-year loading period, with continuous remodeling at the interface, and showed high bone-implant contact percentages.